南京夜网

Rich countries asked for cuts and money

COPENHAGEN: The bloc of developing nations insist rich countries, deemed responsible for today’s warming and best placed to tackle it, commit to legally binding reductions of their emissions by at least 40 per cent annually by 2020 over 1990 levels.They refuse to make binding emissions targets of their own, arguing that they need to keep access to cheap, plentiful fossil fuels to haul themselves out of poverty. Some, though, have agreed to announce voluntary measures for reducing their growth in emissions by 2020.Developing nations are also asking for money to help shore up their climate defences and support the switch to low-carbon energy. Industrialised countries are being urged to earmark 1 per cent of their annual gross domestic product, or $US400 billion ($437 billion).Within the developing world, fast-growing countries with large populations are under pressure from rich nations to show they are prepared to tackle emissions that started to soar at the start of the century.Many analysts give high marks to measures already announced, while adding the caveat that these are voluntary measures unlikely to be policed by internationally enforceable compliance measures. China, the world’s biggest carbon emitter in terms of volume, says it will cut the intensity of its CO2 emissions per unit of GDP by 40 to 45 per cent by 2020 from 2005 levels.India, ranked No.4 in emissions, says it will voluntarily reduce its emissions by 20-25 per cent by 2020 from 2005 levels, but this depends on support from the international community. Brazil has promised a voluntary reduction of 36-39 per cent by 2020, mainly from tackling deforestation in the Amazon, as opposed to its forecast level of emissions in 2020.Indonesia says it could reduce its emissions by 26 per cent by 2020 from forecast trends mainly by tackling deforestation, with international help. South Korea, still categorised as a developing country under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, has promised what it says is a 30 per cent reduction by 2020 over ”business-as-usual” trends.South Africa has yet to put specific proposals on the table. It is taking a hard line on demanding Kyoto-style commitments for rich countries.Rich countries are divided both in their offers for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and their enthusiasm for the approach, enshrined in the Kyoto Protocol, for legally binding emissions targets backed by tough compliance mechanisms.The United States, the world’s richest country and No. 2 carbon emitter, remains outside the Kyoto framework and is seeking an accord that would not have Kyoto’s compliance teeth.It says that compared to a 2005 benchmark, it would reduce emissions by 17 per cent by 2020, 30 per cent by 2025, 42 per cent by 2030 and ultimately 83 per cent by 2050.The US target for 2020 means only a fall of 4 percentage points compared to 1990, the benchmark year widely used as the interim target in the UN process.The European Union, which saved Kyoto after the US walkout in 2001, is unilaterally cutting its emissions by 20 per cent by 2020 compared to 1990 levels, and offers to go to 30 per cent if other industrialised parties play along.Japan has offered 25 per cent, but there are conditions. Canada sees a reduction of 20 per cent by 2020 compared to 2006, equivalent to a fall of 3 per cent compared to the 1990 benchmark.Australia’s Parliament has rejected a bill for reducing carbon pollution by between 5 and 25 per cent by 2020 from 2000.Russia, the third largest polluter, has a target of reducing emissions by 15 per cent by 2020 from 1990. As for climate funds, Britain and France have called for help of $US10 billion a year between 2010 and 2012. Britain has committed to $US1.3 billion of this, while the US has said it will pay a ”fair share.”Agence France-Presse
Nanjing Night Net